Rule Engine implemented in Axibase Time-Series Database enables automation of repetitive tasks based on analysis of incoming data. Such tasks may include raising a support ticket if power usage is abnormal or sending an email and executing a system command to clear /tmp directory if free disk space is low.

In simple terms, the rule engine evaluates a set of IF/THEN statements:

IF condition THEN action

When the expression specified in the rule evaluates to true, one or multiple automation procedures are triggered. For instance:

IF avg(value) > 75 THEN send_email

In-Memory Processing

The data is processed by the Rule Engine in-memory which operates independently of storage, messaging, and replication channels. If the received data passes through the filters it is added to matching sliding windows partitioned (grouped) by metric, entity, and tags. The windows are continuously updated as new elements are added and old elements are removed to maintain window size at constant interval length or element count. The window does not maintain a copy of received data in memory unless it is required by functions specified in the expression. For example, except for percentile() function, summary statistics for each window can be re-computed without maintaining input data in memory.

Window Types

Windows can be count-based or time-based. A count-based window maintains an ordered array of elements. Once the array reaches the specified length, new elements replace oldest elements. A time-based window includes all elements that are timestamped within the time interval that ends with current time and starts with current time minus specified window interval. For example, a 5-minute time-based window includes all elements that arrived over the last 5 minutes. As the current time increases, the start time is incremented accordingly as if the window is ‘sliding’ along the timeline.

Window Status

Windows are stateful. Once the expression for the given window evaluates to TRUE, it is maintained in memory with status OPEN. On subsequent TRUE evaluations the status is changed to REPEAT and when the expression finally changes to FALSE, the status is set to CANCEL. Window state is not stored in the database and windows are recreated with new data if ATSD is restarted. By maintaining status in memory while the condition is TRUE enables deduplication and supports flexible action programming. For example, some actions can be configured to execute only on OPEN status, while others can run on every n-th REPEAT occurrence.


Expressions represent statements that return a boolean value: TRUE or FALSE.

percentile(value, 95) > 80

Expressions can reference built-in statistical functions that operate on in-memory data as well as functions that fetch historical data too large to fit into application memory. The list of functions and operators is specific to the type of received data: time-series, properties, or message.

Developing Rules

Rules are typically developed by system engineers with specialized knowledge in their respective subject matter domains. Rules can be also created post-mortem to prevent newly discovered problems from re-occurring. Usually rules cover a small subset of key performance indicators (KPIs) to minimize the maintenance effort. As the coverage increases, the rule engine evolves into a fine-tuned expert system tailored at specific customer requirements.

In order to minimize the number of rules with manual thresholds, ATSD Rule Engine provides the following capabilities:

  • Automated thresholding using forecast() function
  • Override tables with support for wildcards


Thresholds specified in expressions can be set manually or using the forecast function. For example, the following rule fires if observed moving average deviates from expected forecast value by more than 25 percent in any direction.

abs(avg() - forecast()) > 25

If the confidence interval (25% in example above) varies substantially for different entities, forecast_deviation function can be used to compare actual and expected values in terms of standard deviation specific for each time series:

abs(forecast_deviation(avg())) > 2

Manually specified thresholds can be made more specific for an entity or an entity group by adding an exception to the Thresholds table. The exception can be also added by clicking on Exception link in alert console or email alert.

Sliding Windows

ATSD Rule Engine uses two types of windows when ingesting statistics: count and time. These windows are used to calculate aggregations and only the statistics present in these windows are analyzed by the Rule Engine.

Time Based Windows – 3 second window example

Time based windows analyze statistics that occurred in the last N seconds. The time windows doesn’t limit how many samples can be held in the list, however it automatically removes data samples that become outside of the time interval as time passes.

Axibase Time Series Database Rule Engine Time Based Window

Count Based Windows – 3 event window example

Count based windows analyze the last N events (data points) regardless of when they occurred. The count window holds up to N data samples which aggregate calculation such as average can be applied. When the count window becomes full, the oldest (last) data sample is removed to free up space for a new sample.

Axibase Time Series Database Rule Engine Count Based Window
Rule Editor Settings:
Enabledis the rule active or not.
NameRule name must be unique. Multiple rules can be created for the same metric.
Rule names cannot be modified once a rule is created so it’s advisable to establish a naming convention, for example {metric}.{condition}.{application/service}.
Example: cpu_busy.high.ERP-production.
Last Updatedate and time when the rule was last modified.
AuthorOptional user identifier to facilitate controlled changes in multi-user environments.
Descriptiondescription of the rule.
ScheduleOne or multiple cron expressions to control when the rule is active.
The rule is active by default if no cron expressions are defined.
The schedule is evaluated based on local server time.
Multiple cron expressions can be combined using AND and OR operators and each expression must be enclosed within single quotes.
Cron fields are specified in the following order: minute hour day-of-month month day-of-week.
* 8-18 * * MON-FRI (Active between 08:00 and 18:59 on workdays)
'* 0-7,19-23 * * MON-FRI' OR '* * * * SUN,SAT' (Active on weekends and non-working hours)
Dont Group by EntityIncoming data samples are grouped by entity (and by tags for multi-tag metrics) and therefore the expressions are evaluated for each entity/tags combination separately. If Entity Grouping is disabled, data samples are accumulated into a single window. This is typically useful for controlling data flow by raising an alert if window is empty, count() < 0, for all entities collecting this metric.
Leaving EventsThis setting applies to time-based windows. Rule expression is re-evaluated whenever new sample enter the window. If the data flow is irregular or if samples stop coming in, it may cause the window to become stale by not evaluating expression for the remaining samples. If 'Leaving Events' is enabled, the expression is evaluated twice for each sample: when it enters the window and when it exits the window. This causes increased load on the server and is not recommended for high-frequency metrics with regular and reliable data flow.
MetricEnter metric name from the auto-complete drop-down. For alerting on messages, enter 'message' as the metric name.
TagsComma separated list of tags for grouping windows by each tag in addition to entities.
Required for metrics that collect tagged data, for example df.disk_used metric that collects data for multiple file_systems each identified with file_system and disk_name tags.
WindowTwo types of windows are supported: count (length) and time (duration).
Count-based window contains up to N (length) samples.
When the count-based window becomes full, the oldest sample is replaced with the newly arrived sample.
Time-based window contains all samples, regardless how many, inserted within the specified period of time (duration).
As the time goes on, time-based window automatically removes samples that become outside of the time interval.
Aggregate functions applied to windows are equivalent to moving averages.
For example, avg() function for count(10) window, return an average value of the 10 most recent samples.
Minimum IntervalInterval between the first and last samples in the window. If Minimum Interval is set, the expression evaluates to false until there is enough data in the window.
This condition is useful for time-based windows to prevent alerts on database restart or whenever there is a restart of the data flow process.
ExpressionExpression is a condition which is evaluated each time a data sample is received by the window. For example, expression ‘value > 50‘ checks if received value is greater than 50.
If the expression evaluates to ‘true’, it raises an alert, followed by execution of triggers such as system command or email notification. Once the expression returns ‘false’, the alert is closed and another set of triggers is invoked.
The expression consists of one or multiple checks combined with OR and AND operators. Exceptions specified in the Thresholds table take precedence over expression.
Learn more about Expression here.
ColumnsList of custom fields with optional aliases. These fields can be written to alert log and accessed with placeholders in alert messages. For example:
Math.round(avg(value)) as avgValue
Rule Configuration Example:

In this example a forecast is generated for the metric_received_per_second metric using built-in Forecasts, then based on the forecast a rule is created with the following expression:

abs(forecast_deviation(wavg())) > 2

This rule will raise an alert if the absolute forecast deviates from the 15 minute weighted average by more than 2 standard deviations.

Alert exceptions can be created directly in the alerts table.

Alert exceptions can be also created using the 'Exception' link received in email notifications.


Rule Types
thresholdnonevalue > 75Raise an alert if last metric value exceeds threshold
rangenonevalue > 50 AND value <= 75Raise an alert if value is outside of specified range
statistical-countcount(10)avg(value) > 75Raise an alert if average value of the last 10 samples exceeds threshold
statistical-timetime('15min')avg(value) > 75Raise an alert if average value for the last 15 minutes exceeds threshold
statistical-deviationtime('15min')avg(value) / avg(value(time: ‘1 hour’)) > 1.25Raise an alert if 15-minute average exceeds 1-hour average by more than 25%
statistical-ungroupedtime('15min')avg(value) > 75Raise an alert if 15-minute average values for all entities in the group exceeds threshold
metric correlationtime('15min')avg(value) > 75 AND avg(value(metric: ‘loadavg.1m’)) > 0.5Raise an alert if average values for two separate metrics for the last 15 minutes exceed predefined thresholds
entity correlationtime('15min')avg(value) > 75 AND avg(value(entity: ‘host2′)) > 75Raise an alert if average values for two entities for the last 15 minutes exceed thresholds
threshold overridetime('15min')avg(value) >= entity.groupTag(‘cpu _avg’).min()Raise an alert if 15-minute average value exceeds minimum threshold specified for groups to which the entity belongs
log matchcount(1)message LIKE ‘%Invalid user%from%’Raise an alert if invalid user message is written into authentication log
log frequencytime('15min')count(message) > 10 message LIKE ‘%Invalid user%from%’Raise an alert if more than 10 occurrences of invalid user message are written into authentication log over 15 minutes
log correlationtime('15min')avg(value) > 75 message NOT LIKE ‘%compaction started%’Raise an alert if 15-minute average exceeds threshold except when database compaction has been started
Analytical Functions
AVGavg(value) > 50
MINmin(value) < 20
MAXmax(value) > 100
STDEVstdev(value) > 2.5
PERCENTILE (rank)percentile(value, 95) > 80
COUNTcount(value) > 100
FORECAST (time)forecast(value, ’30 min’) < 25
Calendar Functions
cron* 8-18 * * MON-FRI
cron AND‘* 8-10 * * MON-FRI’ AND ‘* 16-18 * * MON-FRI’
cron OR‘* 0-7,19-23 * * MON-FRI’ OR ‘* * * * SUN, SAT’
Tag Functions
Name ExampleDescription
tags(name)tags(‘file_system’) = ‘/’Tags (custom key-value pairs) can be added to any data sample and used in filters and groupings
entity.tag(name)entity.tag(‘environment’) = ‘prod’Tags defined for entities can be used in filters, groupings, and alerts
metric.tag(name)metric.tag(‘type’) = ‘availability’Tags defined for metrics can be used in filters, groupings, and alerts
entity.groupTag(name)entity. groupTag(‘email’, ‘;’)Tags defined for entity groups can be used in filters, groupings, and alerts
Data Windows
Timetime('30 minute')
Time (external)ext_timed('30 minute')
De-duplication Functions
ALLAllRaise alert every time when expression is true
NONENoneDo not raise any alerts
EVERY N EVENTScount(10)Raise alert every 10 times when expression is true
EVERY N MINUTEStime('15 min')Raise alert no more often than 15 minutes when expression is true
Historical Data Queries
atsd_lastatsd_last(metric: 'transq')Query historical database for last value
atsd_valuesavg(atsd_values(entity: 'e1', metric: 'm1', type: 'avg', interval: '5-minute', shift: '1-day', duration: '3-hour'))Query historical database for a range of values. Apply analytical functions to the result set.