# Downsampling

## Overview

Downsampling transformation reduces time series density by filtering out sequentially duplicate samples from a response.

### Basic Example

```
"downsample": {
"difference": 0
}
```

The configuration example excludes samples that are equal to the previous and next values.

### Advanced Example

```
"downsample": {
"algorithm": "INTERPOLATE",
"difference": 10
}
```

The configuration excludes samples that are within `±10`

of an interpolated value.

## Parameters

Name | Type | Description |
---|---|---|

`algorithm` | string | Downsampling algorithm determines which values to discard as duplicate. Possible values: `DETAIL` or `INTERPOLATE` .Default: `DETAIL` . |

`difference` | number | The sample is classified as duplicate if the current value deviates by more than the specified difference, in absolute terms, from the estimated value produced by downsampling algorithm. Minimum value: `0` .Default: `0` . |

`ratio` | number | The sample is classified as duplicate if the ratio of the current value and the value produced by downsampling algorithm or the inverse exceed the specified ratio. Minimum value: `1` . Default: `none` . |

`gap` | object | Maximum distance between subsequent samples in the transformed series. Specified as count and time unit. Default: `none` . |

`order` | integer | Controls the order of downsampling in the sequence of other transformations. Default: `0` . |

TIP

The `difference`

and `ratio`

parameters **cannot** be specified simultaneously.

## Gap

If the `gap`

parameter is specified, and the time distance between the current and last returned sample exceeds the gap, the current sample is always included in the result.

Name | Type | Description |
---|---|---|

`count` | number | Number of time units. |

`unit` | string | Time unit, for example `MINUTE` . |

```
"gap": {"count": 2, "unit": "MINUTE"}
```

The `gap`

parameter prevents a time series from becoming too sparse as a result of downsampling.

## Processing

The samples in the input series are evaluated sequentially in ascending time order.

The following samples are **always included** in the result, even if classified as duplicate by the downsampling algorithm.

- The first and the last samples.
- Annotated samples: Sample with a non-empty text field.
- Samples with
`NaN`

value. - Samples whose previous or next sample value is
`NaN`

.

The remaining samples are checked by the algorithm which excludes them from the results if classified as duplicates and the provided `gap`

condition is satisfied.

If the query retrieves versioned series, the algorithm evaluates the latest version. If the latest version is classified as a duplicate, then all versions with the same timestamp are classified as such.

## Algorithm

The `DETAIL`

and `INTERPOLATE`

algorithms use different formulas to classify samples as duplicates.

This documentation references the following keywords and definitions:

`sample`

: Current evaluated sample.`last_sample`

: Last returned series sample included in the result.`next_sample`

: Sample following current`sample`

.

The timestamps of these samples are `time`

, `last_time`

, `next_time`

, and their values are `value`

, `last_value`

, `next_value`

.

In addition, the `INTERPOLATE`

algorithm performs linear interpolation between the `last_sample`

and the `next_sample`

to calculate `interpolated_value`

with a timestamp equal to `time`

.

### Ratio Check

When the `ratio`

parameter is set, the algorithms calculate several multiples.

`DETAIL`

algorithm:`value/last_value`

`last_value/value`

`value/next_value`

`next_value/value`

`INTERPOLATE`

algorithm:`value/interpolated_value`

`interpolated_value/value`

The sample is classified as a duplicate if all multiples do not exceed the specified `ratio`

.

Note

To avoid division by zero, the algorithm compares `x/ratio > y`

instead of `x/y > ratio`

.

### Difference Check

If the `ratio`

parameter is not set, the algorithm uses absolute difference to classify the sample. If the difference `parameter`

is not set, it defaults to `0`

. The algorithm classifies the sample as duplicate if the following expressions return `true`

.

`DETAIL`

algorithm:

```
abs(value - last_value) <= difference AND abs(value - next_value) <= difference
```

If the difference is `0`

, the sample is a duplicate if it is equal both to the last and the next value:

```
value == last_value AND value == next_value
```

`INTERPOLATE`

algorithm:

```
abs(value - interpolated_value) <= difference
```

## Examples

### Default Downsampling

```
"downsample": {}
```

Result:

```
| | input | downsampled |
| time | series | series |
|-------|--------|-------------|
| 07:00 | 1 | 1 | first sample
| 08:00 | 1 | - |
| 09:00 | 1 | - |
| 10:00 | 1 | - |
| 11:00 | 1 | - |
| 12:00 | 1 | 1 | differs from next sample
| 13:00 | 2 | 2 | differs from last returned sample
| 14:00 | 2 | - |
| 15:00 | 2 | 2 | differs from next sample
| 16:00 | 3 | 3 | differs from last returned sample
| 17:00 | 3 | - |
| 18:00 | 3 | - |
| 19:00 | 3 | - |
| 20:00 | 3 | 3 | last sample
```

`DETAIL`

downsampling with `difference`

and `gap`

```
"downsample": {
"difference": 1.5,
"gap": {"count": 4, "unit": "HOUR"}
}
```

Result:

```
| | input | downsampled |
| time | series | series |
|-------|--------|-------------|
| 07:00 | 1 | 1 | first sample
| 08:00 | 1 | - |
| 09:00 | 1 | - |
| 10:00 | 1 | - |
| 11:00 | 1 | - |
| 12:00 | 1 | 1 | time gap with last returned sample exceeds 4 hours
| 13:00 | 2 | - |
| 14:00 | 2 | - |
| 15:00 | 2 | - |
| 16:00 | 3 | 3 | differs from last returned sample (1.0 at 12:00) by 2.0
| 17:00 | 3 | - |
| 18:00 | 3 | - |
| 19:00 | 3 | - |
| 20:00 | 3 | 3 | last sample
```

`INTERPOLATE`

downsampling

```
"downsample": {
"algorithm": "INTERPOLATE"
}
```

Result:

```
| | input | downsampled |
| time | series | series |
|-------|--------|-------------|
| 07:00 | 1 | 1 | first sample
| 08:00 | 3 | - |
| 09:00 | 5 | - |
| 10:00 | 7 | - |
| 11:00 | 9 | 9 | last sample
```

`INTERPOLATE`

downsampling with `ratio`

```
"downsample": {
"algorithm": "INTERPOLATE",
"ratio": 1.25
}
```

Result:

```
| | input | downsampled | interpolated | |
| time | series | series | value | ratio |
|-------|--------|-------------|----------------------|
| 00 | 2 | 2 | - | - | first sample
| 02 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 1.50 | ratio exceeds threshold
| 04 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 1.30 | ratio exceeds threshold
| 06 | 4 | - | 5 | 1.25 |
| 08 | 6 | - | 5.3 | 1.13 |
| 10 | 6 | 6 | 4 | 1.50 | ratio exceeds threshold
| 12 | 4 | - | 5 | 1.25 |
| 14 | 4 | - | 3.3 | 1.21 |
| 16 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 1.50 | ratio exceeds threshold
| 18 | 2 | 2 | - | - | last sample
```

Charts of the input and downsampled series are provided below. The input series is colored red, the downsampled series is colored green.

The chart illustrates how the `INTERPOLATE`

algorithm calculates interpolated values. Interpolated values are colored blue.