Statistical Functions

Overview

The univariate statistical functions listed below perform calculations on an array of numeric values stored in a window.

Warning

The functions cannot be invoked in filter expressions.

Functions such as countIf, avgIf, and sumIf perform calculations on a subset of matching values in the current window based on a boolean condition.

Reference

avg

avg() double

Calculates average value. For example, avg() for a 5-minute time-based window returns the average value for all samples received within this period of time.

mean

mean() double

Calculates average value. Same as avg().

sum

sum() double

Sums all included values.

min

min() double

Returns minimum value.

max

max() double

Returns maximum value.

wavg

wavg() double

Calculates weighted average. Weight is the sample index which starts from 0 for the first sample. The function assigns more weight to more recent samples, based on the sample order.

wtavg

wtavg() double

Calculates weighted time average where sample weight is calculated according to the following formula:

w = (command_time.millis - time_first())/(time_last() - time_first() + 1)

Times are rounded to Unix seconds.

The function assigns more weight to more recent samples, based on the difference between sample time and window start.

ema

ema([double factor]) double

Calculates exponential moving average from values present in the window. The optional smoothing factor must be within the (0, 1) range. the default factor is 0.25.

The function assigns more weight to more recent samples.

count

count() long

Returns the number of samples in the window, excluding samples with NaN value.

countNaN

countNaN() long

Returns the number of NaN samples in the window.

percentile

percentile(double n) double

Calculates n-th percentile according to the R6 method which uses N+1 as the array size (N is the number of samples in the period) and performs linear interpolation between consecutive values. n must be a fractional number within the [0, 100] range.

median

median() double

Returns 50% percentile (median). Same as percentile(50).

variance

variance() double

Calculates variance.

stdev

stdev() double

Alias: std_dev.

Returns standard deviation calculated as an unbiased estimator of variance for the n - 1 sample.

intercept

intercept() double

Calculates linear regression intercept.

median_abs_dev

median_abs_dev() double

Returns median absolute deviation, a robust estimate (resistant to outliers) of the variance calculated according to the following formula:

median(abs(value - median(value)))

Examples:

median_abs_dev('5 minute')
median_abs_dev(10)

first

first() double

Returns first series value. Same as first(0).

first(int index)

first(int index) double

Returns n-th value from start. First value has index of 0.

last

last() double

Returns last value. Same as last(0).

last(int index)

last(int index) double

Returns n-th value from last value. Last value has index of 0.

diff

diff() double

Calculates difference between last and first values. Same as last() - first().

diff(int i)

diff(int i) double

Calculates difference between last(integer i) and first(integer i) values. Same as last(integer i)-first(integer i).

diff(string interval)

diff(string interval) double

Calculates difference between the last value and value at currentTime - interval.

interval specified as count unit, for example 5 minute.

delta

delta() double

Calculates difference between last and first values. Same as diff().

new_maximum

new_maximum() bool

Returns true if last value is greater than any previous value.

new_minimum

new_minimum() bool

Returns true if last value is smaller than any previous value.

threshold_time

threshold_time(double t) double

Forecasts the number of minutes until the sample value reaches the specified threshold t based on extrapolation of the difference between the last and first value.

threshold_linear_time

threshold_linear_time(double threshold) double

Forecasts the number of minutes until the sample value reaches the specified threshold based on linear extrapolation.

rate_per_second

rate_per_second() double

Calculates the difference between last and first value per second. Same as diff()/(time_last()-time_first()). Time measured in Unix seconds.

rate_per_minute

rate_per_minute() double

Calculates the difference between last and first value per minute. Same as rate_per_second()*60.

rate_per_hour

rate_per_hour() double

Calculates the hourly difference between last and first value input. Same as rate_per_second()*3600.

slope

slope() double

Calculates linear regression slope.

slope_per_second

slope_per_second() double

Calculates linear regression slope.

slope_per_minute

slope_per_minute() double

Calculates slope_per_second()/60.

slope_per_hour

slope_per_hour() double

Calculates slope_per_second()/3600.

countIf

countIf(string condition [, string interval | int n]) long

Counts elements matching the specified condition within interval or within the last n samples.

Examples:

/* For values [0, 15, 5, 40] the function returns 2. */
countIf('value > 10')
/* Count of values exceeding 5 within the last 10 samples. */
countIf('value > 5', 10)

avgIf

avgIf(string condition [, string interval | int n]) double

Calculates average of elements matching the specified condition within interval or within the last n samples.

sumIf

sumIf(string condition [, string interval | int n]) double

Sums elements matching the specified condition within interval or within the last n samples.

Interval Selection

By default, statistical functions calculate results based on all samples stored in a window. The range of samples can be adjusted by passing an optional argument - specified as sample count n or interval - in which case the function calculates the result based on the most recent samples.

avg([string interval | int n]) double
  • avg(5): Average value for the last 5 samples.
  • avg('1 HOUR'): Average value for the last 1 hour.
  • max('2 minute'): Maximum value for the last 2 minutes.
  • percentile(95, '1 hour'): 95% percentile for the last hour.
  • countIf('value > 5', 10): Count of values exceeding 5 within the last 10 samples.

Example:

The condition evaluates to true if the 1-minute average is greater than the 1-hour average by more than 20 and a maximum is reached in the last 5 samples.

avg('1 minute') - avg() > 20 && max(5) = max()